Map Services support tile caches. Tile caches may be appropriate for some data, e.g., large polygon datasets, as it can improve the user experience. You can check the Cached Tiles checkbox on the Map Service to enable tile caching.
Tiles can only be generated at the Map Service level so if you have multiple layers they will be rendered on the same tiles. When adding to ArcCatalog, ArcGIS PRO or one of the SDKs tiles are fetched when adding the Map Service URL. You can still choose to fetch vector data by adding the Layer URL.
There are two mechanisms for caching tiles. You can cache the tiles on demand as they are requested by users. This is the default behavior. Or you can pre-cache the tiles by clicking the Build Tiles button.
When you select scale levels Blue Spatial will estimate the file storage size for creating all the tiles. After you click Create Tiles you can see the progress of tiles created and the actual storage size.
If your data is ever updated you can use the Clear Cache button to delete the tiles.